Global health is the understanding of health care in an international and interdisciplinary context. It includes the study, research, and the practice of medicine with a focus on improving health and health care equity for populations worldwide. Global health initiatives take into account both medical and non-medical disciplines, such as epidemiology, sociology, economic disparities, public policy, environmental factors, cultural studies, etc. Only 10% of the world expenditure on health research and development is spent on health conditions that represent 90% of the global disease burden. This vast inequity between drug research and development and neglected diseases reveals a need to strengthen the research capacity in developing countries through international and national collaboration.
One of the most prominent agencies focused on advancing global health is the World Health Organization (WHO), but this agency is not alone. Today, various other governmental bodies, in partnership with organizations like Canadian Coalition for Global Health and Commission on Health Research for Development, are working to address this global health research inequity. Researchers and leaders in a variety of fields are spearheading initiatives that form alliances between historically disassociated fields. These institutions develop solutions to overcome various difficulties, such as lack of financial and intellectual resources, which hamper efforts to build a solid research community. Already there is evidence of success as new drugs and vaccines are increasingly being developed to treat neglected tropical diseases.
Global health issues are to be aware and the biggest challenges confronting organizations like WHO and others are pandemics, environmental factors, economic disparities and access to healthcare, political factors, non-communicable diseases, animal sources, food sourcing and supply.
Pandemics are global disease outbreaks. Examples of pandemics include HIV, influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola, Zika and other threats that reflect our vulnerability to widespread diseases like polio, tuberculosis, and malaria. Less than half the people in the world today are receiving all the nursing or the healthcare services they need. In Global health, the threat that paces every Nation and every person at risk are infectious emerging diseases which are leading cause of death worldwide, particularly in low and middle income countries, especially in young children, caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites that are passed directly or indirectly. Emerging infectious diseases may be water borne, food borne, vector borne, air borne in human beings as well as animals. Every year there are newly emerging pandemic threats that cannot be solved, and diagnosing symptoms may only occur after an individual is already infected. These issues must be cut off at the source by addressing important areas like health education, responsible agricultural practices, and the issues that cause viruses to spread.
In 2010, almost 100 million people were pushed into extreme poverty because they had to pay health services on their own for these emerging diseases. Vaccine development is of great importance in terms of nursing the global health due to emerging diseases. The worldwide deaths of infectious disease with tuberculosis leading with deaths of 1.8 million, Hepatitis B 1,1 million, Respiratory infections 4.4 million, Measles 1 million, tetanus 500,000 and 2.1 million people become newly infected with HIV an about half the world population remains at the risk of malaria.
Climate change is thought by many global health experts to be the greatest threat to human health. When basic survival needs are disrupted by devastating storms, flooding, droughts, and air pollution, diseases are more easily spread across large groups of people. Climate change is expected to worsen this decline in water quality and quantity, particularly in already dry regions such as the eastern Mediterranean and north Africa. Scaling up water and sanitation services and providing point-of-use disinfection would reduce the current burden of disease and ameliorate the health impacts of decreasing water supplies, but global health must also focus on the prevention of environmental challenges in the first place.
Inadequate access to health care is exacerbated when international politics enter the mix. As conflicts within or between nations destroy critical infrastructures for transportation, water, sanitation, and waste, average citizens become more vulnerable to diseases. This leads them to seek opportunities to flee the dangerous situations that threaten their well-being.
Refugee migration can allow illnesses to quickly spread, but organizations like the WHO stress that the solution is not to simply isolate these large groups of people. Instead, they focus on improving refugee health care access by organizing efforts across borders to endorse policies that bridge short-term humanitarian crisis responses with long-term health care access improvements.
Non-communicable diseases are combination of genetic, physiological, lifestyle, and environmental factors such as unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and second hand smoke and excessive use of alcohol. The most common non-communicable diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes with 70 percent of all deaths worldwide.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of non-communicable disease deaths with includes heart attack, stroke, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, congenital heart disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The second most-common cause of non-communicable disease death globally is cancer with 1 of 6 deaths in 2015. The most common cancer deaths include lung, liver, colorectal, stomach and prostate cancer. The most common cancer deaths in women include breast, lung, colorectal, cervical and stomach cancer. Chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes are also non-communicable diseases which are leading to death.
Non-communicable diseases kill 41 million each year, equivalent to 71% of all the deaths globally. 15 million annual deaths from non-communicable diseases occur among people aged 30 to 69 and more than 85 percent of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries and in vulnerable communities where access to preventative healthcare is lacking. Cardiovascular diseases account for17.9 million people deaths annually, followed by cancers 9 million and respiratory diseases 3.9 million and diabetes 1.6 million.
Education plays a role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases helping populations understand and change lifestyle factors such as poor diets, inactivity, tobacco use, or alcohol consumption. But there is also a correlation between income level and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Nearly three-quarters of non-communicable disease related deaths worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Animal health, Food sourcing and supply
Animal health is naturally intertwined with humans’. Perhaps the clearest connection occurs within the food chain, as humans grow, process, and consume food on a large scale. But in developing areas, animals are also relied upon for transportation, draught power, and clothing. In these communities, animal health is undeniably a factor in human health.
Agricultural practices, including irrigation, pesticide use, and waste management can influence animal health, making disease transmission a concern at every stage of the food supply chain. With pathogens originating from animals or animal products playing such a significant role in disease transmission, veterinary medicine must be included in any effort to improve global health.
Economic disparities and access to healthcare
Despite relentless progress in the field of medicine, communities across the world still lack access to basic health education and health care. As a result, they face harsh realities in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), high child mortality rates, and basic nutrition. These are all issues that could be alleviated by reducing the disparities that isolate these populations.
Some of these disparities are related to geography, with rural communities facing the greatest shortage of physicians. Other disparities are the result of income inequality, with individuals and families simply unable to afford health care that is otherwise unavailable.
To solve these economic challenges, global health professionals must explore opportunities to uplift underrepresented communities in public health forums, encourage physicians to practice in remote areas, and introduce policies that reduce barriers and increase access to health care.
Global health research is necessary to remove the various social, cultural, and logistical barriers that confound the well-intentioned efforts of many global health programs. Research must focus on concerns raised by developing countries, closing not only the gap in health disparities within countries, but also the gap in knowledge between the developed and developing world.
A virus is a small infectious agent which can survive within a host cell and it depends it for the replication and in generally it occurs with the host cell and involves the attachment of the host cell, uncoating of the nucleic acid, synthesis of the virus protein and the replication differs from the DNA and RNA and the changes will occurs in it and mostly the diagnosis will be done by the blood test and it is a single stranded genome and double stranded of reoviridae and some or like circular e.g.: arenaviridae
The word of virus was originally meant venom and the early of vaccination was developed and it is applicable for the Smallpox also and in 2005 there are approximately about the 40 million people were killed up due to the strain of influenza and in the 2009 the transferring of the strain into the another commonly known as the wine flu Has killed about the thousands of the people , in 2002 it was reported that poliovirus had been synthetically assembled ,representing the first synthetic organism later in 2003 the faster method used to assemble the 5386- genome of it and in the 2006 a small number of specific transcription factor genes into normal skin cells of mice or humans these cells into the pluripotent stem cells, and this technique is the modified retroviruses to transform the cells and this researches are come into out for the saving of humans from the disease and to and in the 2015 it was shown that proteins from an ERV are expressed in the 3- day – old human embryo’s and it plays a major role in protection of the embryo from any other viruses infection so, it came existence to save the embryo infected and saving from virus.