Neuroscience

Neuroscience

Neuroscience is the study of the brain and nervous system in both humans and animals, and in both health and disease. Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact of behavior and cognitive functions. Neuroscience aims to understand how the nervous system works to produce and regulate emotion, behavior, thought and critical bodily functions and including critical bodily functions. Neuroscience research which draws on cellular and molecular biology, physiology and anatomy, cognition and human behavior and other disciplines to tool out information about how the brain works at levels previously unrecognized. Neuroscience is the multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. Neuroscientists study the cellular, functional, behavioral, evolutionary, computational, molecular, cellular, and medical aspects of the nervous system. Brain and spinal cord which are considered the central part of nervous system. Weighing about 1.3 kg, the human brain consists of millions of individual nerve cells or neurons plus millions of additional cells known as glia. Neuroscience is the place where psychology meets biology to further understanding of physical, neurological and psychological health conditions the brain role in how different types of pain and causes of Parkinson’s disease.

Some major branches of neuroscience which can be broadly categorized in the following disciplines:

 Affective neuroscience,  Behavioral neuroscience,  Clinical neuroscience,  Cognitive neuroscience, Computational neuroscience Cultural neuroscience , Developmental neuroscience , Molecular and cellular neuroscience,  Neuroengineering,  Neuroimaging,  Neuroinformatics, Neurolinguistics,  Neurophysiology. Affective neuroscience is a research how neurons behave in relation to emotion. Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the brain affects behavior. Clinical neuroscience is a medical specialist such as neurologist and psychiatrists which look at the disorder of the nervous system. Cognitive neuroscience which looks at how the brain forms and controls thoughts. Computational neuroscience is how the scientists try to understand how brains compute. Developmental neuroscience looks at how the brain and the nervous system grow and change. Molecular and cellular neuroscience is how the scientists look at the role of individual molecules, proteins, genes in the function of nerves. Researchers use engineering techniques to better understand , repair, replace or improve neural systems is called Neuroengineering. Neuroimaging is a branch of medical imaging that concentrates on the brain. Neuroinformatics is the filed involves collaboration between neuroscientists and computer scientists. Neurolinguistics is a specialists investigate how the brain enables us to acquire understand, store and express language. Neurophysiology this looks at how the brain and its function relate to different parts of the body. Neuroscientists have the daunting  task for trying to understand how all these billions of neurons in the brain and nervous system work. Researchers say that neuroscience means the same as neurobiology. Neurobiology which looks at the biology of the nervous system. The brain which is made up of many networks of communicating neurons and glia. Neuroscience focuses on how this system functions including the structure and development. Researchers which might look into brain activity in people with ailments such as Alzheimer's disease. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning of thinking, remembering, and reasoning and behavioral abilities so that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by disease such as Alzheimer’s disease or any series stokes. Dementia is a term used to describe the symptoms that occur when there is a decline in brain function. A person with dementia may also experience changes in their mood and behavior. Alzheimer’s disease which is the most common cause of dementia not only in one. Dementia which was causes lead to damage to neurons. Once if the brain cells are injured they loss their ability to communicate with other cells which leads to dysfunction. Mental impairment may range from mild to serve. It may also cause personality changes.   If the dementia damages the nerve cells in the brain so messages can’t be sent from and to the brain effectively. Dementia which affects each person in different way depending on the impact of disease and the person’s personality before when they becoming ill. Neurodegenerative disorder results in a progressive and irreversible loss of neurons and brain.

Dementia symptoms vary depending on cause the common signs and symptoms include:

Cognitive changes: It includes the Memory loss that is usually noticed by a spouse or someone else, Difficulty communicating,  Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities, Difficulty reasoning and problem-solving, Difficulty in handling complex tasks, Difficulty in planning and organizing, Difficulty with coordination and motor functions, Confusion and disorientation.

Psychological changes: Which include the Personality changes, Depression, Anxiety, Inappropriate behavior, Paranoia, Agitation, Hallucinations. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of progressive dementia in older and adults. Dementia is caused to number people. The stages of dementia are used when the progressive dementia has been diagnosed. The stages which include: No impairment, Questionable impairment, Mild impairment, Moderate impairment, Moderate to severe impairment, Severe Impairment, Very severe impairment.

Normal memory changes associated with aging which may include: slower thinking and problem solving, Decreased attention and concentration, slower recall. The speed of learing slows down when the short term memory takes longer to function and the reaction time increases in the slower thinking and problem solving. More distractedness which interruptions make learning more difficult in decreased attention and concentration. A greater need for hints to jog the memory in slower recall. Dementia mostly affects older people, and the risk of dementia increases with increasing age.  The older you are, the more likely you are to be affected by dementia. If you have a family history of dementia, you have a higher risk of developing it yourself compared to people with no history of dementia in their family. Many studies have shown that people with one of these conditions during midlife are about twice as likely on average to develop dementia later in life. Dementia is diagnosis by taking a careful history of the person's problem from a close relative and the friend together by an examination of the person's physical state and the mental state. It is important to exclude that the treatable conditions cause memory loss such as depression, brain tumour, vitamin deficiency and urinary infection.

 

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