Nursing And Healthcare

Nursing And Healthcare

Nursing is described as a divine profession which mainly focuses on the care of the individual or community who is sick or unwell. Nursing care mainly focuses on healthcare, patient care, diagnosis and treatment and helps to assist them to cure the disease or disorder of the patient. Nurse encourages patients to make their decisions without any judgment from the nurse, the patient has all the rights to accept or reject the treatments. Veracity is being completely truthful with patients. Ethics are fundamental to nursing; all nurses should respect their patients, maintain patients' dignity and protect patients’ rights. The most important principles that should be considered in the nursing profession are respecting the patient/client and preserving human dignity. Nursing research is the research evidence used to support nursing practices. It helps nurses to determine best practices and improve patient care were many nurses work together as researches in universities, and in healthcare settings. Nursing research has been developing since the time of Florence Nightingale to the present day. It helps nurses to determine best practices and improve patient care. Nursing research is the effective knowledge provided to the nursing practice students to develop high standards in their profession, it promotes professional development of nursing, improves clinical expertise and personal knowledge and can implement changes to provide excellence in nursing care. Nurses need research because it helps them to get advance in their field, maintain better patient care, stay updated and develop their conclusions. Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice can be an essential component of the educational process. It plays an important role in the nursing profession as it provides new and updated advancements used to promote nursing care. Major goals of nursing research are to eliminate the health disparities among different segments of the population and helping individuals of all the ages to increase and improve the expectancy and quality of life. Why nursing research is important? It is essential to find out the better treatments for patients, discovering new treatments and use the existing treatments in the best way possible. It develops knowledge about health and promotion of health over lifespan care of patients with disabilities health problems and nursing action enhances the ability of individuals to respond to accrual or potential problems. Nursing practice is a profession of nurses who care for patients and their families it is a challenging task, physically and mentally due to the diverse situations that have to be encountered each day. From being compassionate to being influenced by empathy, nursing is an emotionally challenging task as well. Professional nursing practice describes how registered nurses practice, collaborate, communicate, and develop the highest quality care for those served by the organization and care for the patients those who are in various health problems. The nurses in the nursing practice profession should care for every individual with humanity and dignity. Nursing management is the leadership functions of governance and decision making within the organization employing nurses. The Nurse Manager’s role is to fulfill the organization's vision and long term plan and maintaining quality measures. The process of nursing management includes planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Nurses need to seek additional education to earn a Master of Science in nursing to prepare for leadership roles within nursing.

Currently, there is a shortage of nurses in many countries like African countries, some Asian countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, Japan and many European countries like France, Italy, and Spain. There are about 30 main countries having nurses’ shortage. There are about 20 million nurses who are employed in nursing as a profession. The count of nursing on an average

 

Africa

 805,000 (+1.6%)

 

 Americas

 5,259,000 (+28.4%)

 

 South-East Asia

 2,224,000 (+13.7%) 

 

 Europe

 6,620,000 (-0.6%) 

 

 Eastern Mediterranean

 870,000 (+18.4%) 

 

 Western Pacific

 3,600,000 (+5.4%) 

  

Roles of Nurses

Administration of medications

Nurses are primarily involved in the administration of medications and also involved in both the dispensing and preparation of medications such as crushing pills and drawing up a measured amount for injections. The “rights” of medication administration include the right patient, right drug, right time, right route, and the right dose. However, the complexity of the medication process has led to the formulation of the rights of nurses in the area of medication administration. The essential environmental conditions conducive to safe medication practices include

(a) the right to complete and clearly written orders that clearly specify the drug, dose, route, and frequency;

(b) the right to have the correct drug route and dose dispensed from pharmacies

(c) the right to have access to drug information

(d) the right to have policies on safe medication administration

(e) the right to administer medications safely and to identify problems in the system and

(f) the right to stop, think and be vigilant when administering medications. 

Assisting in surgery

Surgical nurses are the backbones of the surgical teams, If surgeons are considered to be leaders of the team. They are there from the very beginning of the procedure to the very end. In fact, without surgical nurses, it would be almost impossible for surgeons to do their jobs well. These specialty nurses assist with all sorts of tasks before, during, and after surgical procedures. Besides assisting with just general surgical procedures, most surgical nurses choose to specialize in one area. This can be an area such as obstetrics, pediatric surgery, or cardiac surgery, and among others.

Bedside monitoring

Bedside nursing plays an important role in the adoption of new technologies incorporated in the Hospital environment and with the primary intent of making health care more efficient and safer, the bedside nurse has been impacted by all of these changes. The growth and utilization of point-of-care testing, automated dispensing systems, electronic medication records, electronic health records, mobile and digital radiography, and computerized provider order entry have continued to foster the growth of Nursing autonomy and the expectation of nurses critical thinking. The usability and utility of these advancing technologies are key components to end-user satisfaction and ultimately the adoption of the technology by the bedside nurse.

Bladder irrigation

Bladder irrigation is a procedure used to flush sterile fluid through your catheter and into your bladder. Bladder irrigation helps remove and prevent blood clots in your bladder. Bladder irrigation may be needed after bladder or prostate surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation can also cause blood clots in your bladder. If you have surgery, the catheter will be placed during surgery. If you do not have surgery, the catheter will be placed while you are in bed.

ICU care

ICU nurses play a vital role in the patient’s care. In the intensive care unit, people are constantly looked after and monitored by a highly specialized team, which includes consultants, physiotherapists, dieticians and nurses, each of them with specialist knowledge and skills. Specially trained nurses provide round-the-clock care and monitoring, and there is a high ratio of nurses to patients - each person in ICU is usually assigned his or her own 'named' nurse.

Management of open wounds

Wound management is commonly performed by nurses or technicians. The management of open wounds, which are often the most difficult wounds to treat and are those that require the most expertise and time to achieve a good outcome. Immediately after injury, or when the animal is brought for treatment, wounds should be covered with a clean, dry bandage to prevent further contamination and hemorrhage.

Maternal care

Excellence in the delivery of health care services to new mothers and their infants is a realistic goal that can be achieved in nursing today. This paper identifies some specific challenges toward achieving this goal. Nurses who are concerned about achieving excellence in maternal-newborn practice can examine their beliefs and attitudes and act not only as individuals but also as a group to take responsibility for ensuring quality nursing care in maternal newborn nursing.

Patient assessment

The initial nursing assessment, the first step in the five steps of the nursing process, involves the systematic and continuous collection of data, sorting, analyzing, and organizing that data, and the documentation and communication of the data collected. Critical thinking skills applied during the nursing process provide a decision-making framework to develop and guide a plan of care for the patient incorporating evidence-based practice concepts.

Patient education

Patient education and evaluation is the responsibility of nurses for educating patients and helping them to become responsible for their own health status. Patient education needs to be comprehensive and easily understood. Nurse health educators must recognize that many patients are lacking in their inability to understand health care information and what they need to do with that information.

Patient evaluation

Patient evaluation and admitting process is a complete and thorough review of the individual’s medical records.  By understanding a patient’s case history, we can make sure we have the right people and care technology to increase the patient’s level of functionality.  In addition, visit the patient at their current care facility to conduct a comprehensive evaluation and work with hospital staff to assess the patient’s medical and rehabilitation status.

Health care in an international and interdisciplinary context. It includes the study, research, and the practice of medicine with a focus on improving health and health care equity for populations worldwide. Healthcare initiatives take into account both medical and non-medical disciplines, such as epidemiology, sociology, economic disparities, public policy, environmental factors, cultural studies, etc. Only 10% of the world expenditure on health research and development is spent on health conditions that represent 90% of the global disease burden. This vast inequity between drug research and development and neglected diseases reveals a need to strengthen the research capacity in developing countries through international and national collaboration. One of the most prominent agencies focused on advancing global health is the World Health Organization (WHO), but this agency is not alone. Today, various other governmental bodies, in partnership with organizations like the Canadian Coalition for Global Health and Commission on Health Research for Development, are working to address this global health research inequity. Researchers and leaders in a variety of fields are spearheading initiatives that form alliances between historically disassociated fields. These institutions develop solutions to overcome various difficulties, such as lack of financial and intellectual resources, which hamper efforts to build a solid research community. Already there is evidence of success as new drugs and vaccines are increasingly being developed to treat neglected tropical diseases. Pandemics are global disease outbreaks. Examples of pandemics include HIV, influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola, Zika and other threats that reflect our vulnerability to widespread diseases like polio, tuberculosis, and malaria. Less than half the people in the world today are receiving all the nursing or the healthcare services they need. These issues must be cut off at the source by addressing important areas like health education, responsible agricultural practices, and the issues that cause viruses to spread. In 2010, almost 100 million people were pushed into extreme poverty because they had to pay health services on their own for these emerging diseases. Vaccine development is of great importance in terms of nursing global health due to emerging diseases. The worldwide deaths of infectious diseases with tuberculosis leading with deaths of 1.8 million, Hepatitis B 1,1 million, Respiratory infections 4.4 million, Measles 1 million, tetanus 500,000 and 2.1 million people become newly infected with HIV an about half the world population remains at the risk of malaria.

 WHO statistics

According to the world health statistics 2018 for the progress towards sustainable development goals is to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being of all ages. By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births. 303,000 women died due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth in 2015. Almost all of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries (99%). Reducing maternal mortality crucially depends upon ensuring that women have access to quality care before, during and after childbirth. Available data since 2007 shows that less than half of all births in several low- and middle income countries were assisted by skilled health personnel. Globally it is estimated that over 40% of all pregnant women were not receiving early antenatal care in 2013. By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1000 live births Under-five mortality rates continued to improve in 2016 dropping to 41 per 1000 live births down from 93 per 1000 live births in 1990. Nevertheless, every day in 2016, 15 000 children died before reaching their fifth birthday. Neonatal mortality has fallen from 37 per 1000 live births in 1990 to 19 per 1000 live births in 2016. With more young children now surviving, improving the survival of older children (aged 5 –14 years) is an increasing area of focus. About 1 million such children died in 2016, mainly from preventable causes. The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been the main driver of the 48% decline in HIV-related deaths from a peak of 1.9 million in 2005. However, ART only reached 53% of people living with HIV at the end of 2016. After unprecedented global gains in malaria control, progress has stalled. Globally, an estimated 216 million cases of malaria occurred in 2016, compared with 237 million cases in 2010 and 210 million cases in 2013. The main challenge that countries face in tackling malaria is a lack of sustainable and predictable funding. Reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmers. Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. At least half of the world’s population do not have full coverage of essential health services. In 2010, an estimated 808 million people – 11.7% of the world’s population – spent at least 10% of their household budget paying out of their own pocket for health services. An estimated 97 million people were impoverished by out-of-pocket health-care spending in 2010.

Key Sessions

Key Sessions

Conferences

Conferences

Other Streams

Other Streams