Oncology

Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal growth of cells spread to other parts of the body. Cancer has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors example: alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking, improved screening of several cancers allowing for earlier diagnosis, and improvements in treatment. The most leading cause of death worldwide is due to cancer and with time as cancer prevalence among the population is increasing it is estimated that the costs for diagnosis and treatment are going to increase. Globally cancer has a major health impact over the society, new cases of cancers are diagnosed and reported each and every year.  As of last year (2018) 17 million new cases of cancer were reported and the death cases were 9.6 million. 

The type of cancers which were mainly reported were breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, Colorectal cancer, skin cancer, bladder cancer, kidney and renal pelvis cancer, endometrial cancer, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer and liver cancer. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women and the second main cause of cancer death in women. For better understanding of what is breast cancer one should know the breast cancer symptoms, breast cancer facts, causes of breast cancer. This session is all about the symptoms, causes, facts and other relevant information about breast cancer which will be delivered by breast oncologist and doctors. Liver cancer is generally relegated as primary or secondary. Primary liver cancer commences in the cells of the liver. Unlike other cells in the body, cancer cells can break away from the primary site, or where cancer commenced. The cells peregrinate to other areas of the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Cancer cells ineluctably amass in another body organ and commence to grow there. Skin cancer is the out-of-control magnification of eccentric cells in the epidermis, the outermost skin layer, caused by unrepaired DNA damage that triggers mutations. These mutations lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. The main types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The two main causes of skin cancer are the sun’s deleterious ultraviolet (UV) rays and the utilization of UV tanning machines. Often, the medico may even detect the magnification at a precancerous stage, afore it has become a full-blown skin cancer or perforated below the surface of the skin. Lung cancer is a type of cancer that commences in the lungs. The lungs are two spongy organs that take in oxygen when you breathe and release carbon dioxide. Lung cancer claims more lives each year than do colon, prostate, ovarian and breast cancers coalesced.

Symptoms of different cancers include abnormal periods or pelvic pain, bloating, blood in the stool, breast dimpling, discoloration, or other changes, chronic coughing, chronic headaches, difficulty swallowing, excessive bruising, frequent fevers or infection, noticeable skin changes, persistent fatigue, postmenopausal bleeding, sores or pain in the mouth, stomach pain or nausea, unexplained weight loss, lumps in the testicles. 

A medical professional who works in the field of oncology is an oncologist. Oncologists must first diagnose a cancer. Cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy, and the type and the stage of the illness determine the treatment modality. This is where monitoring a patient undergoing cancer therapy becomes just as important as diagnosis. After diagnosis, imaging techniques such as x-ray, ultrasound, mammography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) can assist in locating cancer and determining its stage of development.

 

In surgery, non-hematological cancers can be remedied if entirely abstracted by surgery, but this is not always possible. When cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, consummate surgical excision is customarily infeasible. Radiation therapy is the utilization of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy can be administered internally via brachytherapy or externally via external beam radiotherapy. Radiation therapy injures or eradicates cells in the area being treated (the "target tissue") by damaging their genetic material, making it infeasible for these cells to perpetuate to grow and divide. Albeit radiation damages both cancer cells and mundane cells, most mundane cells can saturate from the effects of radiation and function felicitously. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs ("anticancer drugs") that can ravage cancer cells. In current utilization, the term "chemotherapy" customarily refers to cytotoxic drugs which affect rapidly dividing cells in general, in contrast with targeted therapy. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division in sundry possible ways, e.g. with the duplication of DNA or the disseverment of incipiently composed chromosomes. Targeted therapy is a paramount impact in the treatment of some types of cancer, and is currently a very active research area. This constitutes the utilization of agents categorical for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells.

The most common imaging method used to detect cancer and monitor its spread is Computed Tomography (CT) currently represents the workhorse of radiology. Recent developments permit extremely fast volume scans that can generate two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions. The radiation dose remains high, thus a very strict indication for every intended Computed tomography (CT) is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of the potential energy stored in the body’s hydrogen atoms. Those atoms are manipulated by very strong magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to produce an adequate amount of localizing and tissue-specific energy that will be used by highly sophisticated computer programs in order to generate two-dimensional images and three-dimensional images. The major advantage is that no ionizing radiation is used. Ultrasonography is still the most harmless and cheapest technology in radiology, which is the reason why many physicians outside radiology use this technique. Ultrasound probes use acoustic energy to produce images. As there is no ionizing radiation with this modality. Ultrasonography is particularly useful in imaging of children and pregnant women.

Key Sessions

Key Sessions

Conferences

Conferences

Other Streams

Other Streams