Cardiology defined as the branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. This is  includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who are specializing in this field of medicine are called cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine. Paediatric cardiologists are paediatricians who were specialize in cardiology. Physicians who specialize in the cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons, a specialty of general surgery.

The study and practice of cardiology involves a wide range of patient care activities including: basic physical examinations; preventive health; and the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease through non-invasive treatment modalities or sophisticated interventions. They must be proficient in the management of acute coronary care problems, participate in the medical and surgical therapy of coronary artery disease and deal with the pre- and postoperative evaluation of cardiac surgical cases. This specialist must deal with cardiovascular problems associated with hypertensive, rheumatic and congenital heart disease and with cardiomyopathies

Therapeutic analysis and treatment of coronary vein infection, Heart Muscle disease ,cardiac imperfection , Vascular disease, Cardiac arrhythmia, Heart failure, They must be proficient in the management of acute coronary care problems, participate in the medical and surgical therapy of coronary artery disease and deal with the pre- and postoperative evaluation of cardiac surgical cases. This specialist must deal with cardiovascular problems associated with hypertensive, rheumatic and congenital heart disease and with cardiomyopathies.

Heart attack was medical emergency in which the supply of blood to the heart becomes blocked, often as the result of a blood clot.

Other terms used for the heart attack include myocardial infarction, cardiac infarction, and coronary thrombosis. An infarction is when the blood is supply the area is cut off and tissue in that area dies. Heart was difficulty pumping enough blood to support other organs in the body. Other people was May have the hardening and stiffening of the heart muscle itself, which blocks or reduces blood flow to the heart. Heart failure is the chronic, progressive condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs for blood and oxygen.

Leaky or narrowed heart valves stop your heart from effectively pumping blood. Cardiac arrhythmia is the often first detected by simple but nonspecific means: auscultation of the heartbeat with a stethoscope, or feeling for peripheral pulses. High blood pressure or hypertension increases to the risk of the heart disease and stroke. Hypertension risk factors including the obesity, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and family history. Beta-blockers are a common treatment for hypertension. Cardiomyopathy is the heart muscle disease that makes it difficult for the heart to pump. There are different types of cardiomyopathy and treatments are available. Learn what you can do to manage your cardiomyopathy. This is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was build-up of cholesterol and fatty deposits on the inner walls of the arteries. Congenital heart disease also known as your heart had a problem when you were born. Heart may have had a small hole or something more severe. This problem in very serious conditions, many can be treated with surgery. Inflammation of the any of the layers of the pericardium. The pericardium is the thin tissue sac that surrounds the heart. Marfan syndrome is the condition that   effects of the connective tissue of the body and causes damage to the heart, aorta, and other parts of the body. They complex condition requires as the specialized and experienced approach to care.

Vascular disease (blood vessel diseases)

Vascular disease is the group of conditions that affect the health of your arteries and veins and can lead to serious problems like heart attack and stroke

Vascular disease can cause the weak spots in your blood vessels, or make them become narrow or blocked. Common types of vascular disease include:

·       Abdominal aortic aneurysm, this is bulge or weak spot in the main artery in your torso that brings blood from your heart into your abdomen. If the aneurysm bursts, it can cause life-threatening bleeding.

·      Atherosclerosis, this is the happens the when hard substance called plaque builds up in your artery walls, making them hard, narrow, or totally blocked. Atherosclerosis lead to the serious problems like heart attack or stroke.

·      Carotid artery disease, this is happens when the arteries that bring blood to your brain become narrow or blocked and can lead to stroke.

·      Peripheral artery disease, this happens when the arteries that bring blood to your limbs and pelvis become narrow or blocked and can lead to pain, loss of function, and in severe cases, limb loss.


This is the chest pain or discomfort caused when your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. This is may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The discomfort also can occur in shoulders, arms, neck, and jaw. Anginas the pain may even feel like as the indigestion.


Chest Pain or discomfort: feel like pressure or a squeezing pain in your chest. It may feel like indigestion.

Shortness of Breath: often comes along with chest discomfort but can also occur before.

Other Symptoms: breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea, or light-headedness, upper body discomfort in one or both arms, the neck, jaw, or stomach.


Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG records these electrical signals and can help your doctor detect irregularities in your heart's rhythm and structure.

Holter Monitoring: A Holter monitor is a portable device you wear to record a continuous ECG, usually for 24 to 72 hours.

Echocardiogram: This non-invasive exam, which includes an ultrasound of your chest, shows detailed images of your heart's structure and function.

Stress Test: This type of test involves raising your heart rate with exercise or medicine while performing heart tests and imaging to check how your heart responds.

Cardiac catheterization: In this test, a short tube (sheath) is inserted into a vein or artery in your leg (groin) or arm. A hollow, flexible and longer tube (guide catheter) is then inserted into the sheath.

Cardiac Computerized tomography (CT) Scan: This test is often used to check for heart problems. In a cardiac CT scan, you lie on a table inside a doughnut-shaped machine.

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): For this test, you lie on a table inside a long tube-like machine that produces a magnetic field.

Blood Tests:

Blood testes check the levels of certain fats, cholesterol, sugar and proteins in your blood. Blood tests also help blood vessels.


Antiplatelet: drugs, such as aspirin, keep blood clots from forming. These drugs help to keep arteries open in those who have had a previous heart bypass or other artery-opening procedure, such as coronary angioplasty.

Anticoagulants: prevent blood from clotting or prevent existing clots from getting larger. They can keep harmful clots from forming in your heart, veins, or arteries. Clots can block blood flow and cause a heart attack or stroke.

Digitalis: makes the heart contract harder when the heart's pumping function has been weakened. It also slows some fast heart rhythms.

ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme): inhibitors stop production of a chemical that narrows blood vessels. They help control high blood pressure. You may also take an ACE inhibitor after a heart attack to help the heart pump blood better.

Beta Blockers: slow the heart and make it beat with less contracting force, so blood pressure drops and the heart works less hard.

Nitrates (nitroglycerin): relax blood vessels and stop chest pain.

Calcium Channel blockers: Calcium channel blockers relax blood vessels. They are used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain.

Diuretics: Diuretics decrease fluid in the body. They treat high blood pressure. Diuretics are sometimes referred to as "water pills."

Blood Cholesterol-lowering agents: Blood cholesterol-lowering agents decrease LDL  cholesterol levels in the blood.

Thrombolytic agents (clot busting drugs): Thrombolytic agents are given during a heart attack to break up a blood clot in a coronary artery and restore blood flow.

Each year, heart disease is top of list of the country’s most serious health problems. Approximately 84 million People in this country suffer some of cardiovascular disease. Causing 2,200 deaths a day, averaging death every 40 seconds. Almost one out of every 3 deaths. Approximately 78 million U.S adults have BP and 20 million have diabetes Cardiovascular diseases more deaths then cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases about one-third cardiovascular disease deaths occurred before age 75. 92.1million of Adults are living with some form of cardiovascular disease or the after-effects of stroke. Females 47.7% deaths and 46.0 % of males.  43.7 Heart diseases, 9.0%  of Heart Failure deaths., 9.4% High blood pressure , 3.1% diseases of the arteries 17.9% other cardiovascular diseases , 16.8% Heart stroke, Coronary heart disease accounts for 1 in 7 deaths in US, killing over 366,800 people in a year. Overall prevalence for MI in US is about 7.9 million, or 3 percent, in US adults. 3.9 million Each year cardiovascular disease causes deaths in Europe and over 1.8 million deaths in the European Union. Every 34 seconds someone has heart disease related event. Approximately every minute someone will die. 210 South Africa People die from Heart disease every day. 80% Deaths occurring low and middle income countries.


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