Preoperative care which mainly refers to the preparation and management of a patient prior to a surgery and which mainly includes the both physical and psychological preparation of the patient. The main aim of preoperative care is to do whatever is right to increase the success of the surgery of the patient. This assessment should include whatever tests are indicated but not to include screening for conditions without an indication. All nurses get exposure to postoperative recovery room and ward during their training rotation period to learn about various aspects of nursing care which is required immediately after major surgery .For all nurses the rotation given to the students helps them to understanding the clinical application of theoretical knowledge and follow their seniors and observe them in various tasks.
The Surgical patients are particularly at risk of hypothermia because of anaesthetic –induced impairment of thermoregulatory control and cool operating room temperature that create a perfect combination for the developing a hypothermia with post –surgery. Reducing the incidence of perioperative hypothermia through appropriate perioperative care can reduce the number and complexity of complications that arise. Preoperative care involves many components, and may be done the day before the surgery in the hospital which has done the day before surgery in the hospital or during the weeks before the surgery on a patient’s basis. Preoperative nursing has the preparations with the physical and Psychological preparation. The Physical preparation may consist of a complete medical history with a physical exam and including the patients surgical and anaesthesia background.
This part of the preparation includes assessment for risk factors which may include the might impair healing such as the metabolic disease such as diabetes. In the physical preparation the night before the surgery skin most is often ordered which can take the form of scrubbing with a special soap and the patient in physical preparation are present in the different areas like nutrition and fluids, elimination, hygiene, sleep, vital signs and anti-embolic stocking. In psychological preparation the patients are often fearful about having surgery by having the helpful to express their concerns to healthcare workers. The main psychosocial assessment is level of anxiety, coping ability and support systems. The mainly the children may have the especially be fearful and allowed to have a parent as long as the parent is not demonstrably fearful and contributing to the child’s apprehension.
The main role of the nurse in preoperative phase is pre-operative assessment, obtaining informed consent, preoperative teaching, physical preparation of patient and psychological preparation of patient. The main goals of the preoperative nursing are giving the person and SOS complete teaching guidelines regarding surgery, Instructing and demonstrating exercises that will be benefit to the person during postop period to the patient, and planning for discharge and any projected towards changes in the lifestyles in the surgery of the patient. The statistics of Preoperative nursing care in 2002, 3.7 million children and youth from 1 to 21 years of age were discharged from a hospital, amounting to 4.4 hospital discharges per 100 children.
Among children between the ages of 1 and 14 years, the discharge rates were particularly high among those with respiratory and those with respiratory problems accounted for 29% with hospital discharges, and 26% with hospital discharges were attributable to those with injuries, victims of poisonings, and those with gastrointestinal, endocrine, immune, nutritional, and metabolic problems.