Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends people be under paediatric care up to the age of 21, though usually only minors under 18 are required to be under pediatric care. Paediatrics is the branch of medical science which is concerned with the physical, mental, and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Paediatric diseases encompasses a broad spectrum of health issues ranging from preventive health care to the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Paediatric diseases include all health problems faced by children like anemia, asthma, chickenpox, diphtheria,leukemia, measles, mumps, pneumonia, polio, tuberculosis, whooping cough, Lyme disease, fever, down's syndrome, dental caries, cystic fibrosis, chagas disease, candidiasis, cancer, bronchiolitis, etc. Immune system of every living organism protects them from infections and diseases through various lines of defence. Absence of its proper functioning results in the occurrence of diseases and also contributes to the development of many common disorders including metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative conditions. Pediatric immunology is concerned with allergies, chronic infections, and immune deficiencies among infants, children and adolescents. Allergic and immunologic conditions include asthma, allergies including all food allergies, anaphylaxis, chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, nasal allergy, hives, eczema, immune deficiencies, occupational allergies, mastocytosis, hereditary angioedema, allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, atopic dermatitis, drug allergy and stinging insect allergy. An abnormal response of the body to a certain food is known as food allergy, when a child sneezes or coughs a lot, or frequently develops a rash or hives, or gets a stomach ache, cramps or nausea after eating certain foods may be allergic towards that food. It is important to know that food allergy is different than food intolerance, which does not affect the immune system, although some of the same symptoms might be present. Most children with food allergies are prescribed epinephrine (adrenaline) which is administered with an auto-injector as soon as symptoms develop. Early identification of childhood allergies improves the quality of life of the children. Invention of vaccines has saved millions of lives for more than 50 years specially children and have kept them healthy. When a child is vaccinated during his childhood according to the schedule prescribed 90 to 99 % they are found to be effective in preventing diseases. A vaccinated child shows less serious symptoms than the one who has not vaccinated. Vaccination protects children from more than a dozen diseases such as measles, polio, (whooping cough). Most of these diseases are now at their lowest levels in history since the years of immunization. Vaccines makes a child immune to serious diseases without making them sick first. Without a vaccine a child may actually get a disease, in order to become immune to the germ that causes it they should be vaccinated. Vaccines work best when they are given at certain ages and a prescribed schedule has been followed for this. Getting a child vaccinated is much better than making him to get the disease as some of the most devastating diseases that affect children have been greatly reduced or eradicated completely. Today we protect children and teens from 16 diseases that can have a terrible effect on their young victims if left unvaccinated. Infectious diseases killed or disabled thousands of children each year. The near elimination of intellectual disability due to measles encephalitis, congenital rubella syndrome, and haemophilic influenza, type b meningitis or Hib can be contributed through vaccines. As the vaccines are so effective in preventing childhood diseases, many have forgotten how serious it is for children to get them. Today, viruses and bacteria that cause vaccine-preventable disease and death still exist and can be passed on to people who are not protected by vaccines. Before releasing a vaccine into the market the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews all aspects of development, including where and how the vaccine is made and the studies that have been conducted in people who received the vaccine. The FDA doesn’t license a vaccine unless it meets standards for effectiveness and safety. Results of studies are then reviewed again by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians before a licensed vaccine is officially recommended to be given to children. Every lot of vaccine is tested to ensure quality (including safety) before the vaccine reaches the public. In addition, FDA regularly inspects places where vaccines are made. Paediatric healthcare encompasses the care of patients from the infant stage to adolescence. Paediatrics with biological, social, and environmental influences on the developing child and with the impact of disease and dysfunction on their overall development. Children differ from adults anatomically, physiologically, immunologically, psychologically, developmentally, and metabolically hence medication as well as treatment also differs from those of adults. Bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal infections are all types of infectious diseases that can make a child sick and are reason for concern. Childhood infections are one of the most common reasons children see a healthcare provider. Majority of Pediatric Infectious Diseases are not serious and children recovery quickly, sometimes children do need to see a specialist for recurrent, prolonged or severe infections. Paediatric obesity is d a medical condition where accumulation of excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. Paediatric or childhood obesity is the most existing nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. The ubiquity of obesity is highest among specific age groups. There are many factors which affect the health of a child. Pediatric obesity is one of the major concern about child health among the physicians as well as upbringing of a child at home. It is difficult to determine body fat directly but the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI which is known as body mass index (BMI), it provides guideline of weight in relation to height and it is the accepted measure of overweight and obesity. Paediatricians can figure out if a child's weight could pose health problems by using growth charts, the BMI and also if necessary by other tests. Recent studies reveal that 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world as it has a number of consequences in the later stage of a child’s life. A recent survey by The National Health and Nutrition Examination has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on increased rate among all Pediatric age groups both in males and females. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects, pediatric obesity is being recognized as a serious public health concern. Factors which contribute to pediatric obesity are eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle. Cause of obesity may be idiopathic or genetic, over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. When the body consumes more calories than it can burns and also through overeating and under exercising obesity is easily gained. Pediatric or childhood obesity is a growing global epidemic that requires attention .One of the best strategies to reduce childhood obesity is to improve the eating and exercise habits of a family. Treating and preventing childhood obesity helps protect the child's physical as well as mental health now and in the future. Childhood obesity imposes complications on a child’s physical, social and emotional well-being. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, sleep disorder, hyperlipidaemia, asthma, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. It also contributes to social and emotional complications like low self-esteem, behaviour and learning problems and depression. Paediatricians play a particularly important role in preventing pediatric obesity. As a primary care providers paediatricians are involved in a child's health from birth through adolescence, which gives them a unique role and involvement in the life of a child and family. Children generally see their paediatrician anywhere from one to ten-plus times a year, especially in the younger age groups. Paediatricians are already involved in regularly scheduled well-child visits dedicated to discussions of health, growth, development, nutrition, safety, and overall well-being. These visits also provide opportunities to form rapport with families and children. The paediatrician can become a key player in the field of pediatric overweight and obesity by becoming involved in prevention, screening and identification, treatment or referral, and community involvement to affect pediatric obesity at a higher level. Highlights of the Pediatric obesity conference focuses on current research for improvement of child health and prevention of childhood obesity, improving mental health status of an obese child, and other strategies for weight management, food nutrition and exercise, lifestyle and habits, and other upcoming and prevailing challenges in healthcare. Oncology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Pediatric oncology is concerned with cancers occurring in infants, children, and adults. Existence and development of cancer in children can occur anywhere in the body which includes the blood and lymph node system, brain and spinal cord (central nervous system; CNS), kidneys, and other organs and tissues. Cancer or tumour development starts when healthy cells change and grow out of control and body’s immune response fail to defend it. In most types of cancer, these cells form a mass of uncontrolled and continuously dividing cells called tumour. A tumour can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumour is malignant which means it can grow and spread to other parts of the body but a benign tumour means the tumour can grow but will not spread to distant parts of the body. Cancers are usually uncommon in children and the cancers that occur in children are different from those which occur in adults. 99% of different cancers develop in adults and it is most common in older adults. About 1 out of every 3 adults will develop cancer during his or her lifetime, while about 1 in 300 children will be developing cancer before the age of 20. Childhood cancers contribute to less than 1% of all cancers diagnosed each year. Assumptions are made that about 10,590 children in the United States under the age of 15 will be diagnosed with cancer in 2018. From the past few decades Childhood cancer rates have been rising significantly. Risk factors in adults are observed to be their lifestyle, overweight, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, unhealthy habits like smoking and drinking alcohol and other environmental factors like exposure to radiation. Major advancements in cancer treatment has resulted in more number of cancer survival among children with cancer and those children have been observed to survive their adulthood also. Childhood cancer survivors are at risk to some extent for several possible late effects of their cancer treatment. The risks for cancer reoccurrence in each child depend on a number of factors, such as the type of cancer, the specific cancer treatments used, the doses of cancer treatment as well as the child’s age during the time of treatment. At present there is a lot of research going on to discover new treatments for pediatric cancer and it has greatly improved the overall survival rate for children with cancer, which is now more than 80%. There is an increased ongoing research regarding cancer in children who are diagnosed after the age of 14 as these children are starting to enter young adulthood, they might have specific medical, social as well as emotional needs that are different from younger children with cancer. These children are a part of a group often called adolescents and young adults (AYA). This is especially important for teenagers who have lymphoma, leukemia, or bone tumours. Treatment by oncologist familiar with these diseases has been shown to improve survival among children. Women’s health is always a major concern in health initiatives taken by every nation as the health status of women directly reflects the health status of the nation. The concept of women’s health today has become a major concern among the developed as well as developing nations as they are diagnosed with different diseases like cervical cancer, breast cancer, heart diseases, and issues with reproductive health all of these are a consequence of deteriorating quality of life. Worldwide survey reveals that women are more likely to die following a heart attack than men, women are more likely to show signs of depression and anxiety than men, the effects of sexually transmitted diseases can be more serious in women, osteoarthritis affects more women than men, women are more likely to have urinary tract problems, different cancers are reported in women than men.
Many nations have made considerable progress in social and economic development in recent decades, like improvement in life expectancy, but Infant mortality and illiteracy demonstrates that some of the nations have lagged behind in the improvement of women’s health. Women's health education has emerged as a topic of academic focus as different nations realized and recognized the need for women's health and gender-based research and education at the national level and also the rise of primary care in internal medicine. Many nations have come forward and provided dollars to fuel an explosion of research and public awareness campaigns in women's health which included every organ system, and the psychosocial aspects of health. For a woman, their health involves physical, social and emotional well-being and different factors which affects them are political, social, economic status of a nation and also different biological factors play a major role in governing a women’s health. Unfortunately, a majority of women around the world could rarely perform their right to health and wellbeing as the major hindrance towards the achievement of the highest possible standard of health for women is variation in varied geographical regions, ethnic groups and social classes. Despite women health being emphasized as one of the most necessary element for women empowerment, a major section of this gender is generally neglected when it comes to optimal health and wellbeing. Women’s health is a burning issue worldwide and it has been emphasized by many feminists, even the World Health Organization and the United Nations. Reproductive health is one of the key emphasized areas recently owing to an increasing rate of maternal mortality. According to a study by WHO, every day around 800-1000 women die due to complications in pregnancy and child birth and other reproductive health issues which includes infections, excessive bleeding after childbirth, unsafe abortions and hypertensive disorders. Along with reproductive health different cancer in women are also a major concern. Heart disease and cancer were the Improved cancer screenings and other prevention measures are important tools to minimize the risk of disease and are especially important for women in early prevention, detection, and treatment of breast cancer and cervical cancer. Pregnancy is the most important time in a woman’s life to be healthy as the health of the unborn baby depends on the health of the mother. accounting for a combined 43.4 percent of all female deaths. The most common type of is breast cancer, of which there will be an estimated 266,120 new cases in 2018.
Statistical analysis reveal that
36.4% of women over the age of 20 are obese
32.8% of women over the age of 20 years and above have hypertension
3 in 9 women die of heart disease and stroke
Osteoporosis threatens 44 million people, among which 68% are women
Twice as many women suffer from depression
75% of autoimmune diseases are reported in women